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Scientific Accomplishment

Major findings of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) are as follows:

DIABETES

  • The research analyzed 4,079 participants between the ages of 40-80 from the local community-based cohort (Anseong). Those who had higher waist-to-hip ratio (4/4 quartile) were observed with higher risk of Type 2 Diabetes (2 times in males, 3.4 times in females). Waist-to-hip ratio has been reported as a new indicator that can predict the diabetes followed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences.
    (Pham et al., Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;104(2):273-80)

  • When exposed to second hand smoking, the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes is increased by 1.4 times.
    (Ko et al., Ann. Epidemiol. 2011, 21:42-47)

  • Smoking more than a pack of cigarettes per day doubles the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes.
    (Cho et al., Clin. Endocrinol. 2009, 71:679-685)

  • Showing symptoms of diabetes during pregnancy increases the risk of developing diabetes 6 years after giving birth.
    (Cho et al., Diabetes Res. Clin. Practice. 2006, 71:177-183)

HYPERTENSION

  • The research analyzed 1,553 participants from the rural community-based cohort (584 males and 969 females). Participants with lower adiponectin (males: lower than 9.31μg/mL, females: 13.62μg/mL), which is secreted from adipose tissue, showed higher risk of hypertension (twice in males). Also, the risk of hypertension was 2.8 times higher in obese males with low adiponectin and 2.4 times higher in postmenopausal females.
    (Jung et al., Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103:51-56)

  • Females with hypertension show 50-90% reduced percentage of pulmonary function.
    (Lee et al., J. Prev. Med. Public Health. 2009, 42:21-28)

  • Having family member with hypertension, being diagnosed with diabetes, and having high blood protein level will increase the risk of developing hypertension.
    (Eom et al., Korean J. Nutr. 2008, 41:742-753)

  • Habitual snoring increases the risk of being diagnosed with hypertension by 1.5 times.
    (Kim et al., Am. J. Hypertens. 2007, 20:819-824)

  • At the time of the KoGES project’s first investigation, 100 participants had a normal blood pressure. 12 of them have shown the symptoms of hypertension within 2 years.
    (Kim et al., J. Hypertens. 2006, 24:2177-2182)

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

  • The research analyzed 7,330 participants aged between 40 and 91 from the rural community-based cohort. Snorers showed an increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), which is one of the cardiovascular disease factors. For the prevention of cardiovascular disease, snores are suggested to be more careful about their lifestyle.
    (Lee et al., J Epidemiol. 2014;24(4):281-286)

  • The research analyzed 5,539 participants who were age 40 and older from the rural community-based cohort. Particularly in males, consuming more than one and half bottle (90g) of soju (Korean liquor) per day raised the risk of arteriosclerosis due to increased PWV.
    (Kim et al., Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 2014;24:767-776)

  • The research analyzed 1,886 participants who had CT and echocardiogram from 10 year follow up investigations of the local community-based cohort (Ansan). Those who had both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome were observed with abnormal cardiovascular function and structural analysis.
    (Kim et al., Heart 2014;100:938-943)

  • If waist measurement is more than 85cm in males and 80cm in females, the risk of developing CVD is increased by 2-4 times.
    (Baik and Shin, Korean J. Community Nutr. 2010, 15:275-283)

  • Koreans have thicker internal wall of carotid artery and higher risk for coronary artery disease than Japanese.
    (Choo et al., Ann. Epidemiol. 2008, 18:310-315)

METABOLIC SYNDROME

  • The research analyzed 7,038 rural community-based cohort participants. Snoring increased the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. In the case of habitual snoring, the risk was about twice as likely as non-snores to get metabolic syndrome.
    (Shin et al., Sleep Breath 2014;18:423-430)

  • If blood uric acid level is high, the risk for metabolic syndrome is increased by 2.6 times in males and 2 times in females.
    (Lee et al., J. Prev. Med. Public Health. 2012, 45:181-187)

  • Males living in rural areas with high alcohol consumption have higher risks for metabolic syndrome by 1.3 times.
    (Lee et al., Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2010, 88:196-202)

  • If individuals with metabolic syndrome consume a large amount of meat, internal wall of carotid artery will get thicker and eventually increase the risk for heart disease.
    (Oh et al., J. Prev. Med. Public Health. 2010, 43:486-495)

  • Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of developing asthma symptoms, such as breathing difficulty.
    (Lee et al., J. Asthma. 2009, 46:339-342)

  • Consuming more than one cup of alcohol per day increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome by 1.6 times.
    (Baik and Shin, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2008, 87:1455-1463)

  • Menopausal women have the higher risks for metabolic syndrome and related CVD.
    (Park et al., Korean J. Occup. Health. 2006, 45:93-102)

  • Eating habits, such as, skipping meals, eating snacks, and eating out often result in obesity.
    (Lee et al., J. Korean Home Econ. Assoc. 2006, 44:67-77)

DYSLIPIDEMIA

  • In order to estimate the heritability of dyslipidemia, monozygotic twin participants were investigated. The following dyslipidemia-related heritability was observed: 46% in triglycerides and 77% in HDL cholesterol.
    (Sung et al., J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab. 2009, 94:4946-4952)

OTHER HEALTH RELATED RESEARCH

  • GWAS was performed on 6,223 participants from the local community-based cohort and PPT2 gene, which influences the lung function in Korean population, was identified.
    (Kim et al., Respirology 2014;19:360-368)

  • GWAS was performed on 1,827 female participants from the local community-based cohort. ADAMTS9 gene and SMAD3 gene were identified and they showed the relation between menopauses in Korean population.
    (Pyun et al., Menopause 2013;21(5):522-529)

  • Height difference between same age group depends on genetic and environmental factors, and the difference can be up to 3.7cm.
    (Kim et al., J. Hum. Genet. 2010, 55:27-31)

  • Genes affecting pulse, blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, and bone density of Koreans were identified by the KoGES project.
    (Sung et al., Obesity. 2010, 18:1000-1005)

  • From the result of monozygotic twin survey, pattern of eating behaviors, such as food preference and binge eating is 25% genetically determined.
    (Lee et al., J. Bone Miner Res. 2010, 25(2):369-378)

  • Genes affecting pulse, blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, and bone density of Koreans were identified from the KoGES project.
    (Cho et al., Nat. Genet. 2009, 41:527-534)

  • Consuming low-calorie fruits and vegetables prevents the risk of developing osteoporosis.
    (Park et al., Korean J. Community Nutrition 2007, 12:352-360)

  • Increase in blood density of liver enzymes, such as AST, ALT, and γ-GGT is an indicator of the hepatocellular damage. It also showed a correlation with metabolic syndrome or diabetes.
    (Cho et al., Diabetes Care. 2007, 30:2566-2568)

  • Those who mainly eat rice and kimchi were observed with higher risk of diabetes or metabolic syndrome.
    (Ahn et al., Korean J. Nutr. 2007, 40:259-269)

  • Snoring increases the risk of developing chronic bronchitis by 1.7 times. When smokers snore, it triples the risk.
    (Joo et al., Int. J. Sleep Res. 2006, 10:1393-1398)

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